Most countries and academic institutions have very strict plagiarism standards that they utilize to bring plagiarizers to justice. Copyright laws are very strict for the implicit reason of discouraging it in every possible way. Consequently, there have been many different methods developed to detect and prevent plagiarism. For instance, most scholarly articles are now only available on the internet for a price. This limits plagiarism in some ways but doesn’t completely solve the problem. For instance, many academic institutions provide their students with free access to scholarly databases like JSTOR. However, the internet should exist as a portal to vast information and knowledge. Requiring payment for an article is undemocratic and does not give people the opportunity to learn valuable information for free. Yet, it remains a paid service to access these sources to curtail unbridled plagiarism.
Some academic journals have codes of ethics that specifically refer to self-plagiarism. For example, the Journal of International Business Studies .  Some professional organizations like the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) have created policies that deal specifically with self-plagiarism.  Other organizations do not make specific reference to self-plagiarism such as the American Political Science Association (APSA). The organization published a code of ethics that describes plagiarism as "...deliberate appropriation of the works of others represented as one's own." It does not make any reference to self-plagiarism. It does say that when a thesis or dissertation is published "in whole or in part", the author is "not ordinarily under an ethical obligation to acknowledge its origins."  The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) also published a code of ethics that says its members are committed to: "Ensure that others receive credit for their work and contributions," but it makes no reference to self-plagiarism.