In the 1930s, Pacelli and his associates negotiated with the Nazis to form a contract which got signed in 1933 as the Reich Concordat with the approval of the Pope. Note that the Catholic hierarchy believes in the infallibility of Popes in matters of faith and morals (ever since the First Vatican Council of 1870). This Concordat with its Papal infallible authority had arguably neutralized the potential of 23 million Catholics to protest and resist and which helped Hitler into legal dictatorship. [Cornwell, p. 4] After the agreement, Hitler, mimicking Pacelli fourteen years earlier stated, "I will devote my entire strength to cultivating and strengthening the relations between the Holy See and Germany." [Cornwell, p. 136] (Hitler, spent more time and effort on the concordat with Pacelli than on any other treaty in the entire era of the Third Reich [Cornwell, p. 150]). This Concordat gave Germany an opportunity to create an area of trust with the Church and gave significance to the developing struggle against international Jewry. According to John Cornwell, this papal endorsement of Nazism helped seal the fate of Europe which makes it plausible that these Catholic prejudices bolstered aspects of Nazi anti-Semitism. [Cornwell, p. 28]
Daniel Goldhagen's Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1996) was bound to provoke strong reactions. But the degree of hostility and the amount of vituperation it has elicited from other scholars of the Holocaust and Nazi Germany has been surprising. The most shocking recent example is this book, which consists of two essays that try to show that the "Goldhagen thesis" about the German political culture of anti-Semitism that made it possible for so many "ordinary Germans" to carry out the extermination of the Jews is worthless. Three things are remarkable about this volume. First, both essays, in their hyperbolic overkill, repeatedly distort what Goldhagen has written and overlook and deny the quantity and quality of his sources. Finkelstein, who accuses Goldhagen quite misleadingly of providing a "monocausal explanation" and of diminishing the moral significance of the Holocaust, minimizes the plight of the Jews in Nazi Germany and concludes that Holocaust studies are an expression of Zionist ideology after the Six Day War, when American Jews were "basking . . in Israel's reflected glory"! Second, this slim volume does not include Goldhagen's careful, detailed rebuttals of the authors' charges; the publisher thus chose to provide the public with a prosecutor's brief instead of presenting both sides of the argument. Third, this brief comes with endorsements by seven distinguished scholars, whose comments (for instance, about Goldhagen's alleged belief in "national characteristics") allow one to conclude that their dislike for his book affected their understanding of his arguments.
This history of Chicago's skyscrapers begins in the key period of reconstruction after the Great Fire of 1871 and ends a chapter in 1934 amid the Great Depression that brought construction to a standstill. Thomas Leslie covers these years in his book Chicago Skyscrapers , detailing building methods, foundation materials, framing structures, and electric lighting, and other technical innovations. Leslie also considers how the city's infamous political climate contributed to its architecture, as building and zoning codes were often disputed by shifting networks of rivals, labor unions, professional organizations, and municipal bodies.