Dna research thesis

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@Anonymous – if only it was that easy.

Firstly, it doesn’t matter that we don’t have results for KV21A or KV21B, although it would be nice if we did :-). Between them, the two foetuses display 4 alleles. Assuming they are sisters two of these must have come from their father and two from the mother since the parents can only have 4 alleles between them. Since Tut is (10,15) the mother must have been (6,13). It is irrelevant whether KV21A was the mother. What matters now is that their mother was very probably Ankhesenamun. She must have inherited either 6 from her father (Akhenaten) and 13 from her mother (Nefertiti), or vice versa. However, she couldn’t inherit either 6 or 13 from KV55 because he was (15,15). Therefore either KV55 isn’t Akhenaten or one of our assumption is wrong eg Ankhesenamun wasn’t the daughter of Akhenaten (almost impossible)or the foetuses aren’t the daughters of Ankhesenamun. That’s possible but leaves explain whose daughters they were.

For similar reasons, KV35YL cannot be Nefertiti (given the same assumptions as before). This time look at D21S11. KV21A is (?,35). She cannot have inherited this from Akhenaten since neither of his parents (Amenhotep III and Tiye) had it. She must have inherited it from Nefertiti. However, KV35YL doesn’t have this allele so she cannot be Nefertiti. It’s possible to suggest KV35 isn’t Amenhotep III so not Akhenaten’s father which would resurrect a possibility that KV35YL is Nefertiti. But as well as KV35 probably being Amenhotep II we’d still need a relationship between Thuya and Tutmosis IV to pass the allele. It’s possible but really unlikely.

In 1894, Hans Driesch cloned a sea urchin through inducing twinning by shaking an embryonic sea urchin in a beaker full of sea water until the embryo cleaved into two distinct embryos. In 1902, Hans Spemann cloned a salamander embryo through inducing twinning as well, using a hair from his infant son as a noose to divide the embryo.  In 1928, Spemann successfully cloned a salamander using nuclear transfer. This involved enucleating a single-celled salamander embryo and inserting it with the nucleus of a differentiated salamander embryonic cell.  In 1951, Robert Briggs and Thomas Kling, using Spemann’s methods of embryonic nucleus transfer, successfully cloned frogs. In 1962, John Gurdon announced that he too had successfully cloned frogs but, unlike Briggs and Kling’s method, he did so by transferring differentiated intestinal nuclei from feeding tadpoles (Wilmut et al. , 2000). Gurdon’s successful use of differentiated nuclei, rather than the embryonic nuclei used by Briggs and Kling, was particularly surprising to the scientific community. Because embryonic cells are undifferentiated, and therefore extremely malleable, it was not too surprising that transferred embryonic nuclei produced distinct embryos when inserted into an enucleated oocyte. However, inciting differentiated nuclei to behave as undifferentiated nuclei was thought to be impossible, since the conventional wisdom at the time was that once a cell was differentiated (., once it became a cardiac cell, a liver cell, or a blood cell) it could never reverse into an undifferentiated state. It was for this reason that, for a long time, creating a cloned embryo from adult somatic cells was thought to be impossible – it would require taking long-time differentiated cells and getting them to behave like the totipotent cells (cells that are able to differentiate into any cell type, including the ability to form an entirely distinct organism) found in newly fertilized eggs.

Dna research thesis

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