The Supreme Court, in an 8–1 decision, declared sections of the act unconstitutional in the Civil Rights Cases on October 15, 1883. Justice John Marshall Harlan provided the lone dissent. The Court held the Equal Protection Clause within the Fourteenth Amendment prohibits discrimination by the state and local government, but it does not give the federal government the power to prohibit discrimination by private individuals and organizations.  The Court also held that the Thirteenth Amendment was meant to eliminate "the badge of slavery," but not to prohibit racial discrimination in public accommodations. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was the last civil rights bill to be signed into law by the federal government until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 during the Civil Rights Movement .
Piotr joined the IR team in March 2017. He will focus on providing analytical support to the IR team. Piotr joined Shell in 2011, and held previous roles as a Financial Controller for the Turnarounds in Pernis Refinery, Project Manager for SAP implementation in Finance Operations in Manila as well as Financial Modeler and Team Lead in the M&A department. Piotr holds an Master’s degrees in Corporate Finance (Warsaw School of Economics) and Business Law (Warsaw University), as well as a CFA charter. In his free time he enjoys travelling and diving.